Driver Behavior Recognition via Interwoven Deep Convolutional Neural Nets With Multi-Stream Inputs

Chaoyun Zhang, Rui Li, Woojin Kim, Daesub Yoon, Paul Patras

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


Understanding driver activity is vital for in-vehicle systems that aim to reduce the incidence of car accidents rooted in cognitive distraction. Automating real-time behavior recognition while ensuring actions classification with high accuracy is however challenging, given the multitude of circumstances surrounding drivers, the unique traits of individuals, and the computational constraints imposed by in-vehicle embedded platforms. Prior work fails to jointly meet these runtime/accuracy requirements and mostly rely on a single sensing modality, which in turn can be a single point of failure. In this paper, we harness the exceptional feature extraction abilities of deep learning and propose a dedicated Interwoven Deep Convolutional Neural Network (InterCNN) architecture to tackle the problem of accurate classification of driver behaviors in real-time. The proposed solution exploits information from multi-stream inputs, i.e., in-vehicle cameras with different fields of view and optical flows computed based on recorded images, and merges through multiple fusion layers abstract features that it extracts. This builds a tight ensembling system, which significantly improves the robustness of the model. In addition, we introduce a temporal voting scheme based on historical inference instances, in order to enhance the classification accuracy. Experiments conducted with a dataset that we collect in a mock-up car environment demonstrate that the proposed InterCNN with MobileNet convolutional blocks can classify 9 different behaviors with 73.97% accuracy, and 5 ‘aggregated’ behaviors with 81.66% accuracy. We further show that our architecture is highly computationally efficient, as it performs inferences within 15 ms, which satisfies the real-time constraints of intelligent cars. Nevertheless, our InterCNN is robust to lossy input, as the classification remains accurate when two input streams are occluded.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)191138-191151
Number of pages14
JournalIEEE Access
Publication statusPublished - 20 Oct 2020


  • Driver behavior recognition
  • deep learning
  • convolutional neural networks


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