Dual role of cerebral blood flow in regional brain temperature control in the healthy newborn infant

Sachiko Iwata, Ilias Tachtsidis, Sachio Takashima, Toyojiro Matsuishi, Nicola J Robertson, Osuke Iwata

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

Abstract

Small shifts in brain temperature after hypoxia-ischaemia affect cell viability. The main determinants of brain temperature are cerebral metabolism, which contributes to local heat production, and brain perfusion, which removes heat. However, few studies have addressed the effect of cerebral metabolism and perfusion on regional brain temperature in human neonates because of the lack of non-invasive cot-side monitors. This study aimed (i) to determine non-invasive monitoring tools of cerebral metabolism and perfusion by combining near-infrared spectroscopy and echocardiography, and (ii) to investigate the dependence of brain temperature on cerebral metabolism and perfusion in unsedated newborn infants. Thirty-two healthy newborn infants were recruited. They were studied with cerebral near-infrared spectroscopy, echocardiography, and a zero-heat flux tissue thermometer. A surrogate of cerebral blood flow (CBF) was measured using superior vena cava flow adjusted for cerebral volume (rSVC flow). The tissue oxygenation index, fractional oxygen extraction (FOE), and the cerebral metabolic rate of oxygen relative to rSVC flow (CMRO₂ index) were also estimated. A greater rSVC flow was positively associated with higher brain temperatures, particularly for superficial structures. The CMRO₂ index and rSVC flow were positively coupled. However, brain temperature was independent of FOE and the CMRO₂ index. A cooler ambient temperature was associated with a greater temperature gradient between the scalp surface and the body core. Cerebral oxygen metabolism and perfusion were monitored in newborn infants without using tracers. In these healthy newborn infants, cerebral perfusion and ambient temperature were significant independent variables of brain temperature. CBF has primarily been associated with heat removal from the brain. However, our results suggest that CBF is likely to deliver heat specifically to the superficial brain. Further studies are required to assess the effect of cerebral metabolism and perfusion on regional brain temperature in low-cardiac output conditions, fever, and with therapeutic hypothermia.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)1-7
Number of pages7
JournalInternational journal of developmental neuroscience
Volume37
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - Oct 2014

Keywords

  • Analysis of Variance
  • Body Temperature/physiology
  • Brain/blood supply
  • Cerebrovascular Circulation/physiology
  • Echocardiography
  • Female
  • Hemoglobins/metabolism
  • Humans
  • Infant
  • Infant, Newborn
  • Male
  • Perfusion
  • Regional Blood Flow/physiology
  • Spectroscopy, Near-Infrared

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