Duplicated DQ haplotypes increase the complexity of restriction element usage in cattle

E J Glass, R A Oliver, G C Russell

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


The MHC of cattle encodes two distinct isotypes of class II molecules, DR and DQ. Unlike humans, cattle lack the DP locus and about half the common haplotypes express duplicated DQ genes. The number and frequency of DQA and DQB alleles means that most cattle are heterozygous. If inter- and/or intrahaplotype pairing of DQA and DQB molecules occurs, cattle carrying DQ-duplicated haplotypes may express more restriction elements than would be predicted by the number of expressed alleles. We are investigating whether duplicated haplotypes cause differences in immune response, particularly in terms of generating protective immunity. We have analyzed the Ag-presenting function of DQ molecules in two heterozygous animals, one of which carries a duplicated haplotype. We compared the class II isotype specificity of T cell clones recognizing a putative vaccinal peptide from foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV15). We show for the first time that bovine T cells can recognize Ag in the context of DQ molecules. We also present evidence that interhaplotype pairings of DQA and DQB molecules form functional restriction elements. Both animals showed distinct biases to usage of particular restriction elements. Mainly DQ-restricted clones were derived from the animal with duplicated DQ genes, whereas the majority of clones from the animal with a single DQ gene pair were DR restricted. Furthermore, haplotype bias was observed with both animals. These experiments show that understanding of class II chain pairing in addition to knowledge of the genotype may be important in vaccine design where effective epitope selection is essential.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)134-8
Number of pages5
JournalJournal of Immunology
Issue number1
Publication statusPublished - 1 Jul 2000


  • Animals
  • Antigen Presentation
  • Antigen-Presenting Cells
  • Aphthovirus
  • CD4-Positive T-Lymphocytes
  • Capsid
  • Capsid Proteins
  • Cattle
  • Clone Cells
  • Epitopes, T-Lymphocyte
  • Female
  • Gene Duplication
  • Genotype
  • Haplotypes
  • Histocompatibility Antigens Class II
  • Histocompatibility Testing
  • Lymphocyte Activation
  • Male
  • Peptide Fragments
  • Polymorphism, Restriction Fragment Length
  • Viral Vaccines
  • T cell
  • Foot_and-mouth disease
  • Peptide
  • Vaccine


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