Dynamic and Reactive Walking for Humanoid Robots Based on Foot Placement Control

Juan Alejandro Castano, Zhibin Li, Chengxu Zhou, Nikos Tsagarakis, Darwin Caldwell

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


This paper presents a novel online walking control that replans the gait pattern based on our proposed foot placement control using the actual center of mass (COM) state feedback. The analytic solution of foot placement is formulated based on the linear inverted pendulum model (LIPM) to recover the walking velocity and to reject external disturbances. The foot placement control predicts where and when to place the foothold in order to modulate the gait given the desired gait parameters. The zero moment point (ZMP) references and foot trajectories are replanned online according to the updated foothold prediction. Hence, only desired gait parameters are required instead of predefined or fixed gait patterns. Given the new ZMP references, the extended prediction self-adaptive control (EPSAC) approach to model predictive control (MPC) is used to minimize the ZMP response errors considering the acceleration constraints. Furthermore, to ensure smooth gait transitions, the conditions for the gait initiation and termination are also presented. The effectiveness of the presented gait control is validated by extensive disturbance rejection studies ranging from single mass simulation to a full body humanoid robot COMAN in a physics based simulator. The versatility is demonstrated by the control of reactive gaits as well as reactive stepping from standing posture. We present the data of the applied disturbances, the prediction of sagittal/lateral foot placements, the replanning of the foot/ZMP trajectories, and the COM responses.
Original languageEnglish
Article number1550041
Number of pages44
JournalInternational Journal of Humanoid Robotics
Issue number02
Publication statusPublished - Jun 2016

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