This research note combines two methods that have recently improved the state of the art in language modeling: Transformers and dynamic evaluation. Transformers use stacked layers of self-attention that allow them to capture long range dependencies in sequential data. Dynamic evaluation fits models to the recent sequence history, allowing them to assign higher probabilities to re-occurring sequential patterns. By applying dynamic evaluation to Transformer-XL models, we improve the state of the art on enwik8 from 0.99 to 0.94 bits/char, text8 from 1.08 to 1.04 bits/char, and WikiText-103 from 18.3 to 16.4 perplexity points.
Original languageEnglish
Number of pages6
Publication statusPublished - 17 Apr 2019


  • cs.LG
  • cs.NE
  • stat.ML


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