Early events in immune evasion by the lentivirus maedi-visna occurring within infected lymphoid tissue

P Bird, B. Blacklaws, H T Reyburn, D. Allen, John Hopkins, D Sargan, I. McConnell

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

Abstract

Infections caused by lentiviruses, including human immunodeficiency virus, are characterized by slowly progressive disease in the presence of a virus-specific immune response. The earliest events in the virus-host interaction are likely to be important in determining disease establishment and progression, and the kinetics of these early events following lentiviral infection are described here. Lymphatic cannulation in the sheep has been used to monitor both the virus and the immune response in efferent lymph after infection of the node with maedi-visna virus (MVV). Viral replication and dissemination could be detected and consisted of a wave of MVV-infected cells leaving the node around 9 to 18 days postinfection. No cell-free virus was recovered despite the fact that soluble MVV p25 was detected in lymph plasma. The maximum frequency of MVV-infected cells was only 11 in 10(6) but over the first 20 days of infection amounted to greater than 10(4) virus-infected cells leaving the node. There was a profound increase in the output of activated lymphoblast from the lymph nodes of infected sheep, characterized by an increased percentage of CD8+ lymphoblasts. All of the CD8+ lymphoblasts at the peak of the response expressed both major histocompatibility complex class II DR and DQ molecules but not interleukin-2 receptor (CD25). The in vitro proliferative response of efferent lymph cells existing the node after challenge with MVV to both recombinant human interleukin-2 and the mitogen concanavalin A was decreased between days 8 and 16 postinfection, and a specific proliferative response to MVV was not detected until after day 15. Despite the high level of CD8+ lymphoblasts in efferent lymph, direct MVV-specific cytotoxic activity was demonstrated in only one of the five MVV-challenged sheep. MVV-specific antibody responses, including neutralization and MVV p25 immune complexes in efferent lymph, were detectable during the major period of virus dissemination. The relationship of these findings to the evasion of the host's acute immune response by MVV is discussed.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)5187-97
Number of pages11
JournalJournal of Virology
Volume67
Issue number9
Publication statusPublished - Sep 1993

Keywords

  • Animals
  • Antigens, CD4/analysis
  • Antigens, CD8/analysis
  • Base Sequence
  • CD4-CD8 Ratio
  • Cell Line
  • Concanavalin A
  • Cytotoxicity, Immunologic
  • DNA, Viral/analysis
  • DNA, Viral/genetics
  • Gene Products, gag/analysis
  • Genes, gag
  • Humans
  • Interleukin-2/pharmacology
  • Lymph/immunology
  • Lymph Nodes/immunology
  • Lymphocyte Activation
  • Lymphoid Tissue/immunology
  • Molecular Sequence Data
  • Oligodeoxyribonucleotides
  • Pneumonia, Progressive Interstitial, of Sheep/immunology
  • Recombinant Proteins/pharmacology
  • Repetitive Sequences, Nucleic Acid
  • Sheep
  • Skin
  • T-Lymphocyte Subsets/immunology
  • Visna-maedi virus/genetics
  • Visna-maedi virus/immunology
  • Visna-maedi virus/isolation & purification

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