Abstract / Description of output
Inflammation is implicated in depression and psychosis, including association of childhood inflammatory markers on the subsequent risk of developing symptoms. However, it is unknown whether early-life inflammatory markers are associated with the number of depressive and psychotic symptoms from childhood to adulthood. Using the prospective Avon Longitudinal Study of Children and Parents birth cohort (N = up-to 6401), we have examined longitudinal associations of early-life inflammation [exposures: interleukin-6 (IL-6), C-reactive protein (CRP) levels at age 9y; IL-6 and CRP DNA-methylation (DNAm) scores at birth and age 7y; and IL-6 and CRP polygenic risk scores (PRSs)] with the number of depressive episodes and psychotic experiences (PEs) between ages 10-28 years. Psychiatric outcomes were assessed using the Short Mood and Feelings Questionnaire and Psychotic Like Symptoms Questionnaires, respectively. Exposure-outcome associations were tested using negative binomial models, which were adjusted for metabolic and sociodemographic factors. Serum IL-6 levels at age 9y were associated with the total number of depressive episodes between 10 and 28y in the base model (n = 4835; β = 0.066; 95%CI:0.020-0.113; pFDR = 0.041) which was weaker when adjusting for metabolic and sociodemographic factors. Weak associations were observed between inflammatory markers (serum IL-6 and CRP DNAm scores) and total number of PEs. Other inflammatory markers were not associated with depression or PEs. Early-life inflammatory markers are associated with the burden of depressive episodes and of PEs subsequently from childhood to adulthood. These findings support a potential role of early-life inflammation in the aetiology of depression and psychosis and highlight inflammation as a potential target for treatment and prevention.
Keywords / Materials (for Non-textual outputs)
- Life course
- Psychotic experiences