Porcine circovirus type 2 (PCV2) causes great economic losses in growing pigs and there are several reviews on disease manifestations and lesions associated with PCV2 in growing pigs. Reproductive failure in breeding herds, predominately associated with increased numbers of mummies and non-viable piglets at parturition, is one of the disease manifestations of PCV2 infection. Boars shed low amounts of infectious PCV2 in semen for extended time periods, and vertical transmission of PCV2 to fetuses during PCV2 viremia of the dam has been experimentally confirmed. However, intrauterine-infected piglets often are clinically normal. Nevertheless, pigs infected with PCV2 by the intrauterine route can be born viremic, possibly contributing to horizontal spread of PCV2 within the breeding herd and into the nursery. Shedding of PCV2 in semen and prevalence of intrauterine-infected piglets can both be greatly reduced by PCV2 vaccination well ahead of expected PCV2 exposure. This review is a discussion on current knowledge on the effects of PCV2 infection in the dam and in in utero fetuses, including clinical signs, lesions, diagnosis and prevention through vaccination. Infection of boars with PCV2, the potential for PCV2 transmission via semen and prevention of PCV2 shedding are also discussed.
- Circoviridae Infections
- Pregnancy Complications, Infectious
- Viral Vaccines