Effects of inhaled nitric oxide 10 ppm in spontaneously breathing horses anaesthetized with halothane

LE Young*, DJ Marlin, RM McMurphy, K Walsh, PM Dixon

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

Abstract / Description of output

Inhaled nitric oxide, a selective pulmonary vasodilator, is known to improve arterial oxygenation after cardiopulmonary bypass and during acute respiratory distress syndrome in humans. During general anaesthesia with spontaneous ventilation, healthy adult horses develop large alveolar-arterial oxygen tension differences. In this study, we have determined the effects of inhaled nitric oxide (10 parts per million (ppm)) on venous admixture and pulmonary haemodynamics in horses anaesthetized with halothane. Seven adult horses were studied twice in random sequence. After premedication with romifidine 100 mu g kg(-1), anaesthesia was induced with ketamine 2.2 mg kg(-1) and maintained with 1.1 MAC (0.95%) of halothane in oxygen. Horses breathed spontaneously. After 65 min, each horse had nitric oxide 10 ppm added to the inspired gas for 20 min (procedure HA+NO) or anaesthesia was continued with halothane in oxygen (procedure HA). Cardiac output, minute ventilation, arterial and mixed venous oxygen and carbon dioxide tensions, and mean pulmonary and carotid arterial pressures were measured for 100 min. Shunt fraction and pulmonary and systemic vascular resistances were calculated. Shunt fraction (SF) and mean pulmonary artery pressure (P-PA (mean)) were not different between the two groups after 65 min of general anaesthesia (HA: SF 0.20 (SD 0.06), P-PA mean 45 (8) mm Hg; HA+NO: SF 0.21 (0.04), P-PA (mean) 44 (7) mm Hg) or after 85 min (HA: SF 0.22 (0.07), P-PA mean 45 (8) mm Hg; HA+NO: SF 0.20 (0.03), P-PA mean 43 (7) mm Hg). There were no significant effects of time or nitric oxide inhalation on any other variable. There was a significant correlation (r = 0.80, P <0.05) between calculated shunt fraction 65 min after induction of anaesthesia and body weight.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)321-324
Number of pages4
JournalBritish Journal of Anaesthesia
Issue number2
Publication statusPublished - Aug 1999

Keywords / Materials (for Non-textual outputs)

  • horse
  • pharmacology, nitric oxide
  • lung, shunting
  • anaesthetics volatile, halothane


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