PURPOSE: To determine the most efficacious dose of gadodiamide for three-dimensional (3D) contrast-enhanced (CE) magnetic resonance angiography (MRA) of the renal arteries on a patient level based on the sensitivity in detecting the main hemodynamically relevant (> or =50% or occlusion) renal artery stenosis (RAS) using intra-arterial digital subtraction angiography (IA DSA) as the gold standard.
MATERIALS AND METHODS: This prospective, randomized, double-blind, parallel-group, multicenter study included 273 patients referred to IA DSA for suspected RAS. Patients underwent 3D CE MRA after injection of 0.01, 0.05, 0.1, or 0.2mmol/kg of body weight gadodiamide (0.5mmol/ml). The images were assessed for location and degree of RAS by independent blinded readers (MRA: three readers, IA DSA: one reader). Hypothesis testing for a significant trend in sensitivity across dose groups was based on the one-sided Cochran-Armitage style trend test for each independent MRA reader.
RESULTS: The lowest dose group (0.01mmol/kg) proved non-efficacious in detecting hemodynamically relevant (i.e., > or =50% or occlusion) RAS. A statistically significant dose trend (p<0.001) was shown for each of the three independent readers. Depending on reader, the sensitivity obtained with 0.05, 0.1, and 0.2mmol/kg was 63.9-86.1%, 75.8-91.4% and 80.6-90.6%, the specificity was 66.7-73.9%, 59.3-75.0%, and 59.3-75.0% and accuracy was 67.8-78.9%, 75.4-77.4%, and 76.3-81.0%, for the three dose groups, respectively. There were eight non-severe adverse events (AEs). Three serious AEs occurring in one patient were judged not related to gadodiamide by the on-site investigator.
CONCLUSION: A significant dose trend between the four doses examined was observed. The lowest dose (0.01mmol/kg) differed significantly from those of the other three doses. Based on the analysis of the primary and secondary endpoints, 0.1mmol/kg gadodiamide appears to be the most suitable dose in diagnosing hemodynamically relevant RAS. The present study also demonstrated gadodiamide to be safe and well tolerated.
- Aged, 80 and over
- Angiography, Digital Subtraction
- Contrast Media
- Dose-Response Relationship, Drug
- Double-Blind Method
- Gadolinium DTPA
- Image Enhancement
- Image Processing, Computer-Assisted
- Imaging, Three-Dimensional
- Injections, Intravenous
- Magnetic Resonance Angiography
- Middle Aged
- Prospective Studies
- Renal Artery Obstruction
- Sensitivity and Specificity
- Treatment Outcome