## Abstract

The Einstein relation, relating the steady state fluctuation properties to the linear response to a perturbation, is considered for steady states of stochastic models with a finite state space. We show how an Einstein relation always holds if the steady state satisfies detailed balance. More generally, we consider non-equilibrium steady states where detailed balance does not hold and show how a generalisation of the Einstein relation may be derived in certain cases. In particular, for the asymmetric simple exclusion process and a driven diffusive dimer model, the external perturbation creates and annihilates particles thus breaking the particle conservation of the unperturbed model.

Original language | English |
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Pages (from-to) | 1377-1390 |

Number of pages | 14 |

Journal | Journal of Statistical Physics |

Volume | 111 |

Issue number | 5-6 |

Publication status | Published - Jun 2003 |

## Keywords

- Einstein relation
- nonequilibrium steady state
- asymmetric exclusion process
- ASYMMETRIC EXCLUSION MODEL
- EXACT DIFFUSION CONSTANT
- DYNAMICAL ENSEMBLES
- OPEN BOUNDARIES
- FLUCTUATIONS