The aim of this population based study was to assess the incidence, mechanisms, management, and outcome of patients who sustained hepatic trauma in Scotland (population 5 million) over the period 1992-2002. The Scottish Trauma Audit Group database was searched for details of any patient with liver trauma. Data on identified patients were analyzed for demographic information, mechanisms of injury, associated injuries, hemodynamic stability on presentation, management, and outcome. A total of 783 patients were identified as having sustained liver trauma. The male-to-female ratio was 3:1 with a median age of 31 years. Blunt trauma (especially road traffic accidents) accounted for 69% of injuries. Liver trauma was associated with injuries to the chest, head, and abdominal injuries other than liver injury; most commonly spleen and kidneys. In all, 166 patients died in the emergency department, and a further 164 died in hospital. The mortality rate was higher in patients with increasing age (p <0.001), hemodynamic instability (p <0.001), blunt trauma (p <0.001), and increasing severity of liver injury (p <0.001). The incidence of liver trauma in Scotland is low, but it accounts for significant mortality. Associated injuries were common. Outcome was worse in patients with advanced age, blunt trauma, multiple injuries and those requiring an immediate laparotomy.