Endothelin A receptor antagonism and angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibition are synergistic via an endothelin B receptor-mediated and nitric oxide-dependent mechanism

Jane Goddard, Corine Eckhart, Neil R Johnston, Allan D Cumming, Andrew J Rankin, David J Webb

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

Abstract / Description of output

Animal studies suggest that endothelin A (ETA) receptor antagonism and angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibition may be synergistic. This interaction and the role of ETB receptors and endothelial mediators were investigated in terms of systemic and renal effects in humans in two studies. In one study, six subjects received placebo, the ETA receptor antagonist BQ-123 alone, and BQ-123 in combination with the ETB receptor antagonist BQ-788 after pretreatment with the ACE inhibitor enalapril (E) or placebo. In the other, six subjects who were pretreated with E received placebo, BQ-123, and BQ-123 with concomitant inhibition of nitric oxide (NO) synthase or cyclo-oxygenase (COX). Both were randomized, double-blind, crossover studies. Mean arterial pressure was reduced by BQ-123, an effect that was doubled during ACE inhibition (mean area under curve +/- SEM; BQ-123, -2.3 +/- 1.8%; BQ-123+E, -5.1 +/- 1.1%; P <0.05 versus placebo). BQ-123 increased effective renal blood flow (BQ-123, -0.1 +/- 2.4%; BQ-123+E, 10.9 +/- 4.2%; P <0.01 versus BQ-123), reduced effective renal vascular resistance (BQ-123, -1.2 +/- 3.1%; BQ-123+E, -12.8 +/- 3.0%; P <0.01 versus placebo and versus BQ-123), and increased urinary sodium excretion markedly (BQ-123, 2.6 +/- 12.8%; BQ-123+E, 25.2 +/- 12.6%; P <0.05 versus BQ-123, P <0.01 versus placebo and versus E) only during ACE inhibition. These effects were abolished by both ETB receptor blockade and NO synthase inhibition, whereas COX inhibition had no effect. In conclusion, the combination of ETA receptor antagonism and ACE inhibition is synergistic via an ETB receptor-mediated, NO-dependent, COX-independent mechanism. The reduction of BP and renal vascular resistance and associated substantial natriuresis make this a potentially attractive therapeutic combination in renal disease.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)2601-10
Number of pages10
JournalJournal of the American Society of Nephrology
Volume15
Issue number10
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 1 Oct 2004

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