Entanglement and coherence in the Bernstein-Vazirani algorithm

Moein Naseri, Tulja Varun Kondra, Suchetana Goswami, Marco Fellous-Asiani, Alexander Streltsov

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

Abstract / Description of output

Quantum algorithms can outperform their classical counterparts in various tasks, the most prominent example being Shor's algorithm for efficient prime factorization on a quantum computer. It is clear that one of the reasons for the speedup is the superposition principle of quantum mechanics, which allows a quantum processor to be in a superposition of different states at the same time. While such a superposition can lead to entanglement across different qubits of the processors, there also exist quantum algorithms that outperform classical ones using superpositions of individual qubits without entangling them. As an example, the Bernstein-Vazirani algorithm allows one to determine a bit string encoded into an oracle. While the classical version of the algorithm requires multiple calls of the oracle to learn the bit string, a single query of the oracle is enough in the quantum case. In this article, we analyze in detail the quantum resources in the Bernstein-Vazirani algorithm. For this, we introduce and study its probabilistic version, where the goal is to guess the bit string after a single call of the oracle. We show that in the absence of entanglement, the performance of the algorithm is directly related to the amount of quantum coherence in the initial state. We further demonstrate that a large amount of entanglement in the initial state prevents the algorithm from achieving optimal performance. We also apply our methods to quantum computation with mixed states, proving that pseudopure states achieve optimal performance for a given purity in the Bernstein-Vazirani algorithm. We further investigate quantum resources in the one clean qubit model, showing that the model can exhibit speedup over any known classical algorithm even with an arbitrarily little amount of multipartite entanglement, general quantum correlations, and coherence.

Original languageEnglish
Article number062429
Pages (from-to)1-13
JournalPhysical Review A
Issue number6
Publication statusPublished - 21 Dec 2022


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