Environmental reconstruction and wood use at late Chalcolithic Çamlıbel Tarlası, Turkey

John M. Marston, Peter Kováčik, Ulf-Dietrich Schoop

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


Çamlıbel Tarlası is a short-lived, mid 4th millennium BCE Chalcolithic archaeological site in northern central Anatolia, modern Turkey, with evidence for both intensive metallurgy and permanent occupation. Analysis of a wood charcoal assemblage from the site, totaling 2815 charcoal fragments, is the first from this period and region. Anthracological analysis indicates that the primary fuel wood used was deciduous oak, which comprised nearly 90% of identifiable fragments. We find little evidence of differences in wood species used for different functions or over time; however, a significant trend towards the increased use of large-diameter branch or trunk wood over time is noted both for oak and other minor taxa. We reconstruct a dense oak-dominated woodland in the vicinity of the site at the time of first use, with increased forest clearance over time, due to either diminished fuel availability or agricultural expansion, or a combination of the two. An intensification in metallurgical activity in later periods of occupation may have increased demand specifically for large-diameter wood.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)178–194
Number of pages17
JournalQuaternary International
Early online date4 Sep 2020
Publication statusPublished - 2021


  • wood charcoal
  • Chalcolithic
  • Anatolia
  • oak
  • dendroanthracology
  • metallurgy


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