Epidemiological and Molecular Characterization of an Invasive Group A Streptococcus32.2 Outbreak

Jennifer E Cornick, Anmol M Kiran, Roberto Vivancos, Jon Van Aartsen, Jenny Clarke, Edward Bevan, Mansoor Alsahag, Maaike Alaearts, Laura Bricio Moreno, Howard F Jenkinson, Angela H Nobbs, James Anson, Aras Kadiolgu, Neil French, Dean B Everett

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


Anemm32.2 invasive group A streptococcus (iGAS) outbreak occurred in Liverpool from January 2010 to September 2012. This genotype had not previously been identified in Liverpool, but was responsible for 32% (14/44) of all iGAS cases reported during this time period. We performed a case-case comparison ofemm32.2 iGAS cases with non-emm32.2 control iGAS cases identified in the Liverpool population over the same time period to assess patient risk factors foremm32.2 iGAS infection. Theemm32.2 iGAS cases were confined to the adult population. We show that homelessness, intravenous drug use, and alcohol abuse predisposed patients toemm32.2 iGAS disease; however, no obvious epidemiological linkage between the patients withemm32.2 iGAS could be identified. Comparative whole-genome sequencing analysis ofemm32.2 iGAS and non-emm32.2 control isolates was also performed to identify pathogen factors which might have driven the outbreak. We identified 19 genes, five of which had previously been implicated in virulence, which were present in all of theemm32.2 iGAS isolates but not present in any of the non-emm32.2 control isolates. We report that a novelemm32.2 genotype emerged in Liverpool in 2010 and identified a specific subset of genes, which could have allowed this novelemm32.2 genotype to persist in a disadvantaged population in the region over a 3-year period.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)1837-1846
Number of pages10
JournalJournal of Clinical Microbiology
Issue number6
Early online date29 Mar 2017
Publication statusPublished - Jun 2017


  • Adolescent
  • Adult
  • Aged
  • Aged, 80 and over
  • Antigens, Bacterial
  • Bacterial Outer Membrane Proteins
  • Carrier Proteins
  • Child
  • Child, Preschool
  • Disease Outbreaks
  • Female
  • Genotype
  • Humans
  • Infant
  • Male
  • Middle Aged
  • Molecular Epidemiology
  • Streptococcal Infections
  • Streptococcus pyogenes
  • United Kingdom
  • Whole Genome Sequencing
  • Young Adult
  • Journal Article


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