EPidemiology Of Cardiogenic sHock in Scotland (EPOCHS): a multicentre, prospective observational study of the prevalence, management and outcomes of cardiogenic shock in Scotland

A Warren, P McCall, A Proudfoot, S Gillon, A Abu-Arafeh, A McKnight, R Mudie, D Armstrong, E Tzolos, J Livesey, A Sinclair, V Baston, J Dalzell, D Owen, L. Fleming, I Scott, A. Puxty, M M Y Lee, F Walker, S HobsonE. Campbell, M Kinsella, E McGinnigle, R. Docking, G Price, A Ramsay, R Bauld, S Herron, Nazir I Lone, Nicholas L Mills, E L Hartley

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

Abstract / Description of output

Background
Despite high rates of cardiovascular disease in Scotland, the prevalence and outcomes of patients with cardiogenic shock are unknown.

Methods
We undertook a prospective observational cohort study of consecutive patients with cardiogenic shock admitted to the intensive care unit (ICU) or coronary care unit at 13 hospitals in Scotland for a six-month period. Denominator data from the Scottish Intensive Care Society Audit Group were used to estimate ICU prevalence; data for coronary care units were unavailable. We undertook multivariable logistic regression to identify factors associated with in-hospital mortality.

Results
In total, 247 patients with cardiogenic shock were included. After exclusion of coronary care unit admissions, this comprised 3.0% of all ICU admissions during the study period (95% confidence interval [CI] 2.6 to 3.5%). Aetiology was acute myocardial infarction (AMI) in 48%. The commonest vasoactive treatment was noradrenaline (56%) followed by adrenaline (46%) and dobutamine (40%). Mechanical circulatory support was used in 30%. Overall in-hospital mortality was 55%. After multivariable logistic regression, age (odds ratio [OR] 1.04, 95% CI 1.02 to 1.06), admission lactate (OR 1.10, 95% CI 1.05 to 1.19), Society for Cardiovascular Angiographic Intervention stage D or E at presentation (OR 2.16, 95% CI 1.10 to 4.29), and use of adrenaline (OR 2.73, 95% CI 1.40 to 5.40) were associated with mortality.

Conclusions
In Scotland the prevalence of cardiogenic shock was 3% of all ICU admissions; more than half died prior to discharge. There was significant variation in treatment approaches, particularly with respect to vasoactive support strategy.
Original languageEnglish
Number of pages9
JournalJournal of the Intensive Care Society
Early online date28 Dec 2023
DOIs
Publication statusE-pub ahead of print - 28 Dec 2023

Keywords / Materials (for Non-textual outputs)

  • Cardiogenic shock
  • cardiac critical care
  • cardiac intensive care
  • epidemiology
  • mechanical circulatory support

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