BACKGROUND: Robin sequence (RS) is a congenital disorder characterized by cleft palate, micrognathia, and glossoptosis which can result in clinically significant upper airway obstruction (UAO). Historically, incidence of RS in the UK has been estimated as 1 in 8500 live births. Our study describes birth prevalence, clinical characteristics, and management of RS in the East of Scotland (EoS) region.
METHODS: Retrospective case note review of infants born in EoS from 2004 to 2013 with a clinical diagnosis of RS. Cases were identified by searching the regional cleft service patient database and review of Hospital Activity Statistics data. Regional live birth rate provided the denominator for incidence calculations.
RESULTS: A total of 105 cases of RS were identified, giving a birth prevalence of 1:2685 live births. No trends in annual incidence were observed over the 10-year period. Intrauterine exposure to potentially teratogenic agents was identified in 17% cases, including Methadone in 8% cases. Signs of UAO were present in 93% of infants, 63% of whom required active airway management. Nasopharyngeal airway (NPA) was the most commonly used intervention (53% cases), whilst only 7% required surgical management. Infants with an underlying syndrome or additional anomalies (RS+) were significantly more likely to be admitted to a tertiary center and require surgical airway or feeding support compared to those with isolated RS.
CONCLUSIONS: RS incidence in EoS is substantially higher than that reported within other populations, and than previously reported in the UK. A possible association with intrauterine Methadone exposure warrants further investigation.
- Journal Article