Epididymo-orchitis risk factors in traumatic spinal cord injured patients

S Mirsadraee, R Mahdavi, H V Moghadam, M A Ebrahimi, H R H Patel

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


STUDY DESIGN: Retrospective audit and interview-based study of a traumatic spinal cord injured cohort, assessing the incidence and risk of epididymo-orchitis (E-O).

OBJECTIVES: Assess the potential risk factors for E-O in this cohort (spinal cord injured patients).

SETTING: Janbazan Clinic for Spinal Cord Injuries, Mashad, Iran.

METHODS: A retrospective notes audit of 169 male traumatic spinal cord injured (SCI) patients was performed. In addition, interviews were performed to confirm any equivocal data. The following risk factors were assessed: history of recurrent urinary tract infections (UTIs), urethral stricture, urethral diverticuli, urinary fistula, urinary calculi, spinal injury type, neurogenic bladder type, autonomic dysreflexia, vesico-ureteral reflux, sphincterotomy, vasectomy, marriage status, bladder residual and emptying method, ejaculation, spinal injury level, micturation control, and muscular spasm, which included detrusor, external sphincter or lower limb spasm.

RESULTS: A total of 65 patients from our group (38.5%) had suffered E-O at least once. E-O presented on average, 3.9 years after the SCI. Patients with a history of muscular spasm appeared less likely to develop E-O (P<0.05). None of the vasectomised patients developed E-O. The relation between all the other factors and E-O were not significant.

CONCLUSIONS: Our study has shown that the presence of muscular spasm decreases the risk of E-O, although the mechanism remains unclear. Surprisingly, the other historical risk factors showed no clear relation with E-O occurrence.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)516-20
Number of pages5
JournalSpinal Cord
Issue number9
Publication statusPublished - Sep 2003


  • Adolescent
  • Adult
  • Ejaculation
  • Epididymitis
  • Humans
  • Incidence
  • Interviews as Topic
  • Iran
  • Male
  • Middle Aged
  • Orchitis
  • Questionnaires
  • Retrospective Studies
  • Risk Factors
  • Spinal Cord Injuries
  • Time Factors
  • Urinary Bladder
  • Urodynamics


Dive into the research topics of 'Epididymo-orchitis risk factors in traumatic spinal cord injured patients'. Together they form a unique fingerprint.

Cite this