Error Performance of Generalised Space Shift Keying for Indoor Visible Light Communications

Wasiu O. Popoola*, Enrique Poves, Harald Haas

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


In this paper the error performance analysis of a low complexity, multiple transmitter generalised space shift keying (GSSK) signalling technique for short range indoor visible light communications is presented. In an Nt transmitter system, this signalling technique is capable of achieving a spectral efficiency
of Nt bits/s/Hz. The GSSK has higher spectral efficiency than the conventional on-off keying (OOK) and pulse position modulation (PPM) techniques. The GSSK transmitter is much simpler than that of an equivalent regular pulse amplitude modulation (PAM) with similar spectral efficiency. An analytical expression
for the SER is presented and verified using simulations. The receiver is based on the maximum likelihood criterion and using a multiple photodetectors (PD) in the receiver improves the error performance. Within the room and the transmitter-receiver configuration under consideration, with four PDs, a gain of 6 dB
is attainable over the single PD system for the case of 2 and 3 bits/s/Hz. For a given PD-LED separation, using a wider halfangle of Φ1/2 = 60◦ for the case of two LEDs requires 12 dB and 3 dB less at an SER of 10−6 than using LEDs with Φ1/2 = 30◦ and 45◦ respectively. The beam directivity is however of much
lower effect when the room under consideration is equiped with sufficient LEDs to provide full coverage. The GSSK can also support dimming control by using different width, this however is at a price of reduced spectral efficiency.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)1968-1976
Number of pages9
JournalIEEE Transactions on Communications
Issue number5
Publication statusPublished - May 2013


  • generalised space shift keying, visible light communications, indoor


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