Establishment of odontometric sexual dimorphism in archaeological populations: A case study of Hasanlu

Seyedeh Kazzazi, Elena Kranioti

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle


The accurate sex estimation in skeletal remains is considered to be an important step in the reconstruction of the biological profile of unknown individual in an archaeological context. Teeth are among the most frequently recovered human tissues that remain after death as they are hard, long lasting, and resistance to post-mortem insults. In general, males have larger teeth than females and this characteristic could be used in sex estimation. Present study aimed to investigate the degree of sexual dimorphism in the permanent teeth of Hasanlu, the Iron Age population in the Solduz Valley (West Azerbaijan Province of Iran). The Hasanlu site was excavated between 1956 and 1974 by a joined expedition of the University of Pennsylvania Museum of Archaeology and Anthropology, The Metropolitan Museum of Art, and Archaeological Service of Iran. The skeletal remains of Hasanlu are housed at the University of Pennsylvania Museum of Archaeology and Anthropology. In total, the collection consists of 263 individuals including 184 adults and 79 subadults. Analysis of the Hasanlu skeletal material was conducted from April to March 2014 and a total of 51 male and 33 female adult individuals belong to Iron Age levels (V, IV, and IVB) were used for sex estimation. The cervical mesiodistal and buccolingual measurements were collected from 299 upper and lower 3rd and 4th premolar teeth using Hillson-Fitzgerald dental calliper. Discriminant function analysis was used to evaluate the accuracy of each diameter in estimating sex. The mean cervical dimensions in all teeth of males exceeded that of females. The classification accuracy ranged from 74.6% to 85% with lower 4th premolar providing the highest accuracy rate (85%) and the upper 3rd premolar providing the lowest accuracy rate (74.6%). The results indicated that cervical measurements of the premolar is a reliable method for sex estimation and is useful to predict sex in Iranian archaeological populations.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)88-102
JournalInternational Journal of Iranian Heritage
Issue number1
Publication statusPublished - 31 Dec 2016


  • Sex estimation
  • cervical tooth measurements
  • premolars
  • Hasanlu


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