Abstract / Description of output
Citrus fruits are consumed all over the world and their by-products are used for animal feed and essential oils production. This study aimed to evaluate the in vitro and in vivo activity of Citrus aurantium var. Dulcis essential oil (CaEO) combined with ABZ against benzimidazole resistant Haemonchus contortus. In vitro egg hatching assays (EHA) were performed using CaEO and ABZ to estimate the effective concentration to achieve 50% egg death (EC50) values and calculate the test essential oil and drug combinations using a simplex-centroid mixture design. These concentrations were used for a second round of EHAs. Sixteen sheep were randomly allocated into two groups and treated with ABZ and the combination of CaEO and ABZ, and faecal egg count reduction tests were performed. In the first round of EHA, CaEO and ABZ showed EC50 values of 0.57 and 0.0048 mg mL-1, respectively. The H. contortus strain used in the study was shown to be highly benzimidazole resistant, with only 1.5% of parasites having susceptible ß-tubulin SNP genotypes. The ABZ reduced the shedding of nematode eggs by 78%, however, its combination with CaEO reduced faecal egg counts by only 9%. The present study is important to highlight the interferences of natural products in anthelmintic metabolism and consequently in drug efficacy.
Keywords / Materials (for Non-textual outputs)
- Anthelmintic resistance
- Haemonchus control
- Plant oils
- Sheep diseases