Evaluation of the effect of flexible demand and wave energy converters on the design of Hybrid Energy Systems

Daniel Friedrich, George Lavidas

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


Many islands have high electricity prices due to the reliance on imported diesel. However, Hybrid Energy Systems (HES) which combine renewable generation with backup generators and energy storage are becoming cost competitive. Diesel usually provides about 10% of the demand because most renewables are non-dispatchable and thus the complete decarbonisation requires massively oversized renewable generation and storage. By including renewables with
different resource profiles and Demand Side Management (DSM) the diesel consumption could be decreased without increasing storage and renewable generation capacities. Here a framework for the design and optimisation of HES using wind, wave and solar generation and DSM is introduced. For the Mediterranean it is shown that wave energy isn’t competitive but that DSM reduces the emissions and costs by 21% and 8%. In the North Sea, DSM has lower benefits because waves act as an energy store for the wind. Thus the combination of WECs and wind turbines significantly reduces the need for backup generation and energy storage which leads to large reductions in costs
(up to 40%) and emissions (up to 60%). DSM and WECs can both simultaneously reduce the cost and emissions of HES but need to be designed for the particular circumstances.
Original languageEnglish
JournalIET Renewable Power Generation
Early online date17 Sep 2017
Publication statusPublished - Dec 2017


  • Hybrid Energy System
  • Wave energy converter
  • Demand Side Management
  • Renewable energy
  • Energy storage
  • Optimisation


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