Evaluation of the effect of flexible demand on the design and operation of Hybrid Energy Systems

Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingConference contribution


Many remote locations such as islands are not connected to the main electricity grid and instead rely on a microgrid powered by diesel generators. Most of these locations have excellent renewable resources and in recent years Hybrid Energy Systems (HES) which combine renewable generation with backup diesel generators and battery storage have become cost competitive for these locations. In most cases the diesel generators provide about 10% of the energy demand because most renewable generation is non-dispatchable and energy storage is more expensive. In addition, a significant fraction of the renewable electricity generation needs to be curtailed because the supply is larger than the demand and the storage is full. The wasted renewable electricity increases the capital and running costs while the backup diesel generator has high greenhouse gas emissions. The addition of Demand Side Management (DSM) to HES offers the potential to reduce both the diesel fraction and the wasted renewable generation. In DSM electricity demand is shifted from times with lower renewable supply than demand to times with surplus renewable supply. In contrast to energy storage, these measures can have lower capital costs and have no inherent losses (batteries have charge/discharge and self-discharge losses). In this contribution, DSM is added to the in-house simulation framework for the design and optimisation of HES. The framework is used to evaluate HES with and without DSM for an off-grid island in the Mediterranean and in the North of Scotland. The comparison of different levels of DSM with respect to greenhouse gas emissions and electricity costs shows that DSM can reduce both objectives.
Original languageEnglish
Title of host publicationOSES2016
Place of PublicationMalta
Number of pages6
Publication statusPublished - 15 Jul 2016
EventOffshore Energy & Storage Symposium, OSES2016 - University of Malta, Valletta, Malta
Duration: 13 Jul 201615 Jul 2016


ConferenceOffshore Energy & Storage Symposium, OSES2016


  • Hybrid Energy System
  • Demand Side Management
  • Optimisation
  • System sizing
  • Multi-objective optimization


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