Early microcalcification is a feature of coronary plaques with an increased propensity to rupture and to cause acute coronary syndromes. In this ex vivo imaging study of coronary artery specimens, the non-invasive imaging radiotracer, 18F-fluoride, was highly selective for hydroxyapatite deposition in atherosclerotic coronary plaque. Specifically, coronary 18F-fluoride uptake had a high signal to noise ratio compared with surrounding myocardium that makes it feasible to identify coronary mineralisation activity. Areas of 18F-fluoride uptake are associated with osteopontin, an inflammation-associated glycophosphoprotein that mediates tissue mineralisation, and Runt-related transcription factor 2, a nuclear protein involved in osteoblastic differentiation. These results suggest that 18F-fluoride is a non-invasive imaging biomarker of active coronary atherosclerotic mineralisation.