Examination of Horses with Cardiac Disease

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


Despite advances, increased convenience, and availability of echocardiography and other diagnostic techniques, a comprehensive clinical examination still forms the essential first step in any cardiac evaluation.
Signalment and historical findings provide important perspective on the case, whether abnormalities are detected during routine examination or when there are specific presenting signs that may be attributable to cardiac disease.
Good auscultation skills are imperative and this skill improves with thought and practice.
Ancillary tests, such as blood pressure measurement and blood analysis, may provide useful additional information, particularly in specific cases.
Original languageEnglish
JournalVeterinary Clinics of North America: Equine Practice
Early online date11 Mar 2019
Publication statusE-pub ahead of print - 11 Mar 2019


  • Equine
  • clinical evaluation
  • auscultation
  • blood pressure
  • cardiac biomarkers


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