Experimental Reproduction of Porcine Circovirus Type 2 (PCV2)-Associated Enteritis in Pigs Infected with PCV2 Alone or Concurrently with Lawsonia intracellularis or Salmonella typhimurium

T. Opriessnig, D.M. Madson, S. Ramamoorthy, P.G. Halbur, M. Roof, S.M. Layton, X.J. Meng

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

Abstract

Porcine circovirus (PCV)-associated disease (PCVAD) has emerged to become one of the most economically important pig diseases globally. One of the less commonly recognized clinical manifestations of PCVAD is PCV2 type 2 (PCV2)-associated enteritis in growing pigs; however, experimental confirmation of the ability of PCV2 alone or PCV2 coinfection with other agent(s) to induce enteritis is lacking. In this study, 120 specific-pathogen-free (SPF) pigs were divided randomly into six groups: controls (negative control pigs), PCV2 (inoculated with PCV2), LAW (inoculated with Lawsonia intracellularis), SALM (inoculated with Salmonella typhimurium), PCV2-LAW (concurrently inoculated with PCV2 and Lawsonia intracellularis) and PCV2-SALM (concurrently inoculated with PCV2 and Salmonella typhimurium). One half of the pigs in each group were subject to necropsy examination 14 days postinoculation (dpi) and the remaining pigs were examined at 28. dpi. The average daily weight gain was not different (P> 0.05) between groups. Individual pigs inoculated orally with PCV2 regardless of coinfection status (2/10 PCV2, 1/10 PCV2-LAW, 3/10 PCV2-SALM) developed PCVAD with diarrhoea and reduced weight gain or weight loss between 14 and 28. dpi. Those pigs had characteristic microscopic lesions in lymphoid and enteric tissues associated with abundant PCV2 antigen. Enteric lesions were characterized by necrosuppurative and proliferative enteritis with crypt elongation and epithelial hyperplasia in LAW and PCV2-LAW pigs by 14. dpi, ulcerative and necrosuppurative colitis in SALM and PCV2-SALM pigs by 14. dpi, and lymphohistiocytic enteritis with depletion of Peyer's patches in PCV2, PCV2-SALM and PCV2-LAW pigs by 28. dpi. To the authors' knowledge, this is the first report documenting that under experimental conditions, PCV2 can induce enteritis independently from other enteric pathogens and that oral challenge is a potentially important route and perhaps the natural route of PCV2 transmission in growing pigs.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)261-270
Number of pages10
JournalJournal of Comparative Pathology
Volume145
Issue number2-3
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 1 Aug 2011

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