An experimental programme was conducted to investigate the compressive behaviour of concrete-filled cold-formed steel tubular (CFCFST) stub columns with thicker tubes. A total of 30 CFCFST stub columns were tested. The cold-formed square hollow section (SHS) tubes included unstiffened sections and longitudinally inner-stiffened sections using different stiffening methods. Two tubular thicknesses of 6 mm and 10 mm were considered. The overall nominal dimension of the steel section was 200 × 200 mm, and the length of the stub columns was 600 mm. Normal concrete and self-consolidating concrete with a nominal compressive strength of 30 MPa were used to fill the cold-formed SHS steel tubes. The effects of the stiffeners on the rigidity, ductility, failure mode and average sectional strength of the CFCFST specimens were examined. The measured strengths of the CFCFST specimens were also compared with the predicted capacities using methods in various codes including AISC, BS5400, EC4, and DBJ and from a finite element (FE) analysis. Results demonstrate that the inner stiffeners affect the deformability, failure mode and overall strength of the stub columns with the 6 mm-thick tubes more significantly. The DBJ code method is comparatively the best in predicting the strength capacity. Using the validated FE model, an extended analysis has been conducted and this has provided further insight into the mechanical behaviour of the CFCFST specimens.