Explainable and Robust Deep Forests for EMG-Force Modeling

Xinyu Jiang, Kianoush Nazarpour*, Chenyun Dai

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

Abstract / Description of output

Machine and deep learning techniques have received increasing attentions in estimating finger forces from high density surface electromyography (HDsEMG), especially for neural interfacing. However, most machine learning models are normally employed as block-box modules. Additionally, most previous models suffer from performance degradation when dealing with noisy signals. In this work, we propose to employ a forest ensemble model for HDsEMG-force modeling. Our model is explainable and robust against noise. Additionally, we explored the effect of increasing the depth of forest models in EMG-force modeling problems. We evaluated the performance of deep forests with a finger force estimation task. Training and testing data were acquired 3—25 days apart, approximating realistic scenarios.Results showed that deep forests significantly outperformed other models. With artificial signal distortion in 20% channels, deep forests also showed a higher robustness, with the error reduced from that of the baseline by >50% compared with all other models. We provided explanations for the proposed model using the mean decrease impurity (MDI) metric, revealing a strong correspondence between the model and physiology.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)2841-2852
Number of pages12
JournalIEEE Journal of Biomedical and Health Informatics
Issue number6
Publication statusPublished - 6 Jun 2023

Keywords / Materials (for Non-textual outputs)

  • EMG-force modeling
  • electromyography
  • myoelectric control
  • deep learning
  • deep forest


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