Exploring connectivity in Late Bronze Age/Early Iron Age Greece and the Balkans using cranial non-metric analysis

Dimitra Ermioni Michael*, Linda Fibiger, Ioanna Moutafi, Mario Šlaus, Maria Katsimicha, Mario Novak, Barry Molloy*

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

Abstract / Description of output

The present study aims to explore connectivity and networking in Late Bronze Age (LBA)/Early Iron Age (EIA) Greece and the Balkans using morphological biodistance analysis and test the potentiality of newly introduced statistical tests, which were designed for challenging datasets, in this particular cultural area. Cranial non-metric traits were recorded in ten skeletal collections, spanning from East Crete to Romania. We followed an experimental statistical approach encompassing two different measures of divergence, the conventional and well-tested mean measure of divergence (MMD) and the newly introduced untransformed measure of divergence (UMD). Though different, results based on these two measures are mutually supporting and show that biodistances in our regional case studies mainly follow the isolation by distance model. This cautiously confirms our main hypothesis that during the LBA and EIA periods in Greece and the Balkans, personal mobility was a slow process characterized by integration, rather than displacement or transformation. The current study is the first one to infer biological affinities using cranial non-metric analysis combined with artifactual evidence, in LBA/EIA Greece and the Balkans. Building a larger dataset through future non-metric analyses will better enable exploring networking and mobility to further complement ongoing bioarchaeological, genetic, and material culture studies.
Original languageEnglish
Article number165
JournalArchaeological and Anthropological Sciences
Issue number11
Early online date19 Oct 2023
Publication statusPublished - Nov 2023

Keywords / Materials (for Non-textual outputs)

  • bioarchaeology
  • biological distance
  • non-metric traits
  • Bronze Age
  • mobility


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