Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) coexists with insulin resistance (IR), but it is uncertain whether NAFLD and IR contribute independently to atherosclerosis. We tested whether fatty liver, IR, and metabolic syndrome (MetS) features (waist, glucose, triglyceride, HDL cholesterol [HDL-C], and blood pressure) were associated with a marker of atherosclerosis (coronary artery calcium [CAC] score > 0), independently of cardiovascular risk factors and cardiovascular disease (CVD).
RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS
Data were analyzed from a South Korean occupational cohort of 10,153 people who all received ultrasound measurements of fatty liver and a cardiac computed tomography CAC score. IR was defined by homeostasis model assessment of IR (HOMA-IR) >= 75th percentile. Odds ratios (ORs) (95% CIs) for the presence of a CAC score > 0 were estimated using logistic regression.
There were 915 people with a CAC score > 0. MetS features were increased (glucose, blood pressure, triglyceride, and waist) or decreased (HDL-C) among people with a CAC score > 0 (all comparisons against CAC score 0, 55% had fatty liver and 33.7% were insulin resistant. Fatty liver (OR 1.21 [95% CI 1.01-1.45]; P = 0.04) and HOMA-IR (1.10 [1.02-1.18]; P = 0.02) were associated with CAC score > 0, independently of all MetS features, conventional cardiovascular risk factors, and prior evidence of CVD. The presence of IR and fatty liver combined was associated with CAC score > 0 (1.53 [1.20-1.95]; P = 0.001).
Fatty liver and HOMA-IR are both associated with a CAC score > 0 (independently of each other), features of MetS, conventional cardiovascular risk factors, and existing CVD.
- HEPATIC STEATOSIS
- ALANINE AMINOTRANSFERASE
- MORTALITY RISK
- POPULATION-BASED COHORT