Abstract / Description of output
De-etiolation is indispensable for seedling survival and development. However, how sugars regulate de-etiolation and how sugars induce ethylene (ET) for seedlings to grow out of soil remain elusive. Here, we reveal how a sucrose (Suc) feedback loop promotes de-etiolation by inducing ET biosynthesis. Under darkness, Suc in germinating seeds preferentially induces 1-amino-cyclopropane-1-carboxylate synthase (ACS7; encoding a key ET biosynthesis enzyme) and associated ET biosynthesis, thereby activating ET core component ETHYLENE-INSENSITIVE3 (EIN3). Activated EIN3 directly inhibits the function of Suc transporter 2 (SUC2; a major Suc transporter) to block Suc export from cotyledons and thereby elevate Suc accumulation of cotyledons to induce ET. Under light, ET-activated EIN3 directly inhibits the function of phytochrome A (phyA; a de-etiolation inhibitor) to promote de-etiolation. We therefore propose that under darkness, the Suc feedback loop (Suc-ACS7-EIN3-|SUC2-Suc) promotes Suc accumulation in cotyledons to guarantee ET biosynthesis, facilitate de-etiolation, and enable seedlings to grow out of soil.
Keywords / Materials (for Non-textual outputs)
- cotyledon greening
- phytochrome A
- SUCROSE transporter 2
- sucrose phloem loading