Feline Uveal Melanoma Review: Our Current Understanding and Recent Research Advances

David Kayes, Benjamin Blacklock

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articlepeer-review

Abstract

Melanocytic neoplasia is the most common form of ocular tumour in cats, accounting for 67% of cases in an analysis of 2614 cases of primary ocular neoplasia. Feline diffuse iris melanoma (FDIM) is by far the most common form of ocular melanocytic neoplasia, with limbal melanomas and atypical melanoma (melanoma affecting the choroid or ciliary body) infrequently recognised. Early lesions begin as flat areas of pigmentation of the iris, known as iris melanosis. This melanosis is a precursor lesion that can become FDIM when pigmented cells infiltrate the anterior iris stroma, commonly alongside a transition in cell morphology. The differentiation between FDIM and benign iris melanosis is only recognisable though histologic examination, with no in vivo means of identifying the malignant transformation. The behaviour of FDIM is variable and difficult to predict. Some FDIM lesions have a more benign progression and can slowly grow or remain static for years without affecting the ocular or systemic health of the individual, whilst other tumours behave aggressively, invading the ocular structures and significantly affecting the life expectancy of cats through metastatic disease. This makes management and timely enucleation of these cases challenging in practice. This article aims to review our current knowledge of FDIM.

Original languageEnglish
Article number46
JournalVeterinary Sciences
Volume9
Issue number2
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 26 Jan 2022

Keywords

  • feline
  • iris
  • melanoma
  • melanosis
  • uveal

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