Recent deep-level phylogenies of the basal papilionoid legumes (Leguminosae, Papilionoideae) have resolved many clades, yet left the phylogenetic placement of several genera unassessed. The phylogenetically enigmatic Amazonian monospecific genus Petaladenium had been believed to be close to the genera of the Genistoid Ormosieae clade. In this paper we provide the first DNA phylogenetic study of Petaladenium and show it is not part of the large Genistoid clade, but is a new branch of the Amburaneae clade, one of the first-diverging lineages of the Papilionoideae phylogeny. This result is supported by the chemical observation that the quinolizidine alkaloids, a chemical synapomorphy of the Genistoids, are absent in Petaladenium. Parsimony and Bayesian phylogenetic analysis of nuclear ITS/5.8S and plastid matK and trnL intron agree with a new interpretation of morphology that Petaladenium is sister to Dussia, a genus comprising ∼18 species of trees largely confined to rainforests in Central America and northern South America. Petaladenium, Dussia, and Myrospermum have papilionate flowers in a clade otherwise with radial floral symmetry, loss of petals or incompletely differentiated petals. Our phylogenetic analyses also revealed well-supported resolution within the three main lineages of the ADA clade (Angylocalyceae, Dipterygeae, and Amburaneae). We also discuss further molecular phylogenetic evidence for the undersampled Amazonian genera Aldina and Monopteryx, and the tropical African Amphimas, Cordyla, Leucomphalos, and Mildbraediodendron.