Flares, CMEs and solar energetic particles

K. Rice, G. Zank, G. Li

Research output: Contribution to conferencePaper


The relationship between coronal mass ejecta and solar flares has been debated for a long time. While ealier studies (e.g., Munro et al., 1979) found most CMEs are not associated with solar flares, recent studies have revealed that CMEs are usually accompanied by solar flares (e.g. Harrison (1995) found a 48% association rate). The sequence of the onset of CME and accompanying flare is, however still unclear. Evidence, (e.g. Khan & Hudson (2000)) exists that flare may be the drivers for CMEs. However, Zhang et. al. (2001) using C1 of LASCO, performed a study of four CME events, and found in all four cases that CMEs precede the accompaning flares. Furthermore, a recent study of soft X-ray characteristics of solar flares, both with and without associated CMEs (Kay et. al. 2003) verified that flares that occur alone are distinct from those with associated CMEs. The former appear to exhibit a clear relationship between peak intensity and duration while the latter does not. Whether CMEs occur with an associated flare and whether the CMEs occur before or after associated flares is important for observations of SEP events. Cane et. al. (2003) show the existence of a clear signature of flare material at the early phase of those SEP events which have associated flares originating from the Sun's western hemisphere. The composition and abundance of SEP events is likely to be influenced by the nature of the association between flares and CMEs since the injection or seed particle population that a CME driven shock accelerates may well be determined by the flare. We present a series of simulations with different onset time differences between CMEs and flares and explore possible distinguishing feature in the particle intensity profile and spectra that may result from different configurations.
Original languageEnglish
Publication statusPublished - 1 Dec 2003
EventAmerican Geophysical Union, Fall Meeting 2003 - , United States
Duration: 8 Dec 200312 Dec 2003


ConferenceAmerican Geophysical Union, Fall Meeting 2003
Country/TerritoryUnited States


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