The mare provides a unique experimental model for studying follicle development in monovular species. Development of antral follicles in horses is characterized by the periodic growth of follicular waves which often involve the selection of a single dominant follicle. If properly stimulated, the dominant follicle will complete development and eventually ovulate a fertile oocyte. Regulation of follicular wave emergence and follicle selection involves an interplay between circulating gonadotropins and follicular factors that ensures that individual follicles are properly stimulated to grow (or to regress) at any given stage of follicular wave development. Periodic development of follicular waves continuously occurs during most of post-natal life in the mare and is influenced by factors such as stage of oestrous cycle, season, pregnancy, age, breed and individual so that different types of follicular waves (minor or major, ovulatory or anovulatory) and different levels of activity within waves may develop under different physiological conditions. Changes in gonadotropin levels and/or in the sensitivity of follicles to circulating gonadotropins seem to account largely for these physiological variations in follicle development.