The Iranian gene pool is seen as an important human genetic resource for investigating the region connecting Mesopotamia and the Iranian plateau. The main objective of this study was to explore gene flow in nine Iranian ethnic/subpopulation groups (402 samples) by examining mtDNA HVS2 sequence variations. This then allowed us to detect mtDNA HVS2 sequence mutations in two independent thalassemia and cystic fibrosis patient sample groups. The patient groups did not explicitly belong to any of the aforementioned nine subpopulations. Across all subpopulations, the haplogroups B4a1c3a, H2a2a1, N10b, H2a2a2, and J1 were seen to be predominant. High haplogroup diversities along with admixture of the exotic groups were observed in this study. The Arab subpopulation was shown to be independent from the others. It was revealed that there is a far distant relationship between Arab and Azeri groups. The thalassemia patient group, represented an almost random sample of most Iranian ethnic groups, and revealed few significant differences (P ˂ 0.05) in their HVS2 sequence. It turned out that the IVS II-I (G→A) mutation in the thalassemia β-globin gene was highly significant. Since the thalassemia patients in the present study represent many unique haplotypes, we can begin to comprehend the importance of mtDNA with this disease and the necessity for more studies in this context.