Foot and mouth disease (FMD) is a viral disease that affects predominantly cloven-footed animal species within the order Artiodactyla. The potential of the virus to transmit, maintain and circulate itself across a wide range of susceptible hosts, including both domestic and wild ungulates, remains a single major obstacle in an effective eradication of disease worldwide, particularly in disease-endemic settings. Hence, a better understanding of virus transmission dynamics is very much crucial for an efficient control of the disease, particularly at places or regions where wildlife and livestock rearing co-exists. Both OIE and FAO have jointly launched the FMD-control program as FMD-Progressive Control Pathway (PCP) in various disease-endemic developing countries. Nevertheless, the propensity of virus to inter- and intra-species transmission may be a possible constraint in disease control and, hence, its subsequent eradication in such countries. Other than this, cross-species transmission, among domestic and wild ungulates living in close proximities, can undermine the conservation efforts for endangered species. We reviewed and summarized the so-far available information about inter- and intra-species disease transmission, and its impact on wildlife populations to better comprehend disease epidemiology and substantiate efforts for eventual disease eradication across the globe, particularly in settings where the disease is endemic.
- wild hosts
- disease control