Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingChapter (peer-reviewed)peer-review


Fortifications are an enduring aspect of the archaeology of Anatolia and this chapter considers the late antique background and then goes on to review a number of different responses across the region from the seventh to the twelfth centuries, including the significance of coastal fortresses. Different categories of fortifications are discussed from both the physical remains and from references in the contemporary accounts. The changing role and significance of fortifications is considered as part of the wider discussion of Byzantine urbanism and settlement, including a reassessment of the significance of the so-called polis to kastron paradigm. It is argued in conclusion that there is greater regional diversity of role and form of fortifications across Anatolia, which may be viewed as a symbol of Byzantine resilience, rather than merely as refuges and places of retreat.
Original languageEnglish
Title of host publicationThe Archaeology of Byzantine Anatolia
Subtitle of host publicationFrom the End of Late Antiquity until the Coming of the Turks
EditorsPhilipp Niewöhner
Place of PublicationNew York
PublisherOxford University Press
Number of pages19
ISBN (Electronic)9780190610470, 9780190610487
ISBN (Print)9780190610463
Publication statusPublished - 27 Apr 2017


  • urbanism
  • decline and fall
  • ruralization
  • Dark Age
  • Arabs
  • fortifications
  • houses
  • monasteries
  • churches
  • cemeteries


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