Four dimensional CT excretory Urography as an Accurate Technique for Diagnosis of Canine Ureteral Ectopia

Tobias Schwarz, Nick Bommer, Maciej Parys, Florence Thierry, Jonathan Bouvard, Jorge Perez Accino Salgado, Jimmy Saunders, Maurizio Longo

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


Computed tomographic (CT) excretory urography is commonly used to investigate canine ureteral ectopia (UE). Modern technology allows time-resolved CT imaging (four-dimensional CT excretory urography [4D-CTEU]) over a distance exceeding the detector collimation. Objectives of this prospective, observational, diagnostic accuracy study were to evaluate the diagnostic accuracy of CT excretory urography (CTEU) and 4D-CTEU for UE in dogs with lower urinary tract signs, assess the influence of pelvis positioning, and to determine the significance of the ureterovesical junction (UVJ) angle for UE diagnosis. Thirty-six dogs, with a total of 42 normotopic ureters, 27 intramural ectopic ureters, and three extramural ectopic ureters, underwent CTEU and 4D-CTEU with randomized pelvis positioning. Randomized CTEU and 4D-CTEU studies were scored by two observers for ureteral papilla location and murality on a grading scheme. Interobserver agreement, sensitivity, and specificity for ureter topia status and diagnosis were calculated. Computed tomographic excretory urography showed moderate interobserver agreement for the left ureter and perfect for the right ureter, whereas 4D-CTEU showed bilateral nearly perfect agreement between both observers. When comparing CTEU versus confirmed diagnosis, there was a sensitivity and specificity of 73% and 90.2%, respectively, whereas 4D-CTEU showed a sensitivity and specificity of 97% and 94.6%, respectively. An obtuse UVJ angle is significantly more commonly observed in ectopic intramural than normotopic ureters and is significantly associated with increased diagnostic confidence of UE. The use of a wedge to angle the pelvis did not increase the diagnostic confidence in determining ureteral opening position. Four-dimensional CT excretory urography is an accurate and reliable diagnostic technique to investigate UE as cause of urinary incontinence in dogs that is slightly superior to CTEU

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)190-198
JournalVeterinary Radiology and Ultrasound
Early online date22 Dec 2020
Publication statusPublished - 1 Mar 2021


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