## Abstract

A free zero-range process (FRZP) is a simple stochastic process describing the dynamics of a gas of particles hopping between neighboring nodes of a network. We discuss three different cases of increasing complexity: (a) FZRP on a rigid geometry where the network is fixed during the process, (b) FZRP on a random graph chosen from a given ensemble of networks, (c) FZRP on a dynamical network whose topology continuously changes during the process in a way which depends on the current distribution of particles. The case (a) provides a very simple realization of the phenomenon of condensation which manifests as the appearance of a condensate of particles on the node with maximal degree. A particularly interesting example is the condensation on scale-free networks. Here we will model it by introducing a single-site inhomogeneity to a k-regular network. This simplified situation can be easily treated analytically and, on the other hand, shows quantitatively the same behavior as in the case of scale-free networks. The case (b) is very interesting since the averaging over typical ensembles of graphs acts as a kind of homogenization of the system which makes all nodes identical from the point of view of the FZRP. In effect, the partition function of the steady state becomes invariant with respect to the permutations of the particle occupation numbers. This type of symmetric systems has been intensively studied in the literature. In particular, they undergo a phase transition to the condensed phase, which is caused by a mechanism of spontaneous symmetry breaking. In the case (c), the distribution of particles and the dynamics of network are coupled to each other. The strength of this coupling depends on the ratio of two time scales: for changes of the topology and of the FZRP. We will discuss a specific example of that type of interaction and show that it leads to an interesting phase diagram. The case (b) mentioned above can be viewed as a limiting case where the typical time scale of topology fluctuations is much larger than that of the FZRP.

Original language | English |
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Title of host publication | Noise and Stochastics in Complex Systems and Finance |

Editors | J Kertesz, S Bornholdt, RN Mantegna |

Place of Publication | BELLINGHAM |

Publisher | SPIE |

Pages | U224-U234 |

Number of pages | 11 |

ISBN (Print) | 978-0-8194-6738-6 |

DOIs | |

Publication status | Published - 2007 |

Event | Conference on Noise and Stochastics in Complex Systems and Finance - Florence Duration: 21 May 2007 → 24 May 2007 |

### Conference

Conference | Conference on Noise and Stochastics in Complex Systems and Finance |
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City | Florence |

Period | 21/05/07 → 24/05/07 |

## Keywords

- balls-in-boxes model
- zero-range process
- condensation
- dynamical rewirings
- FACTORIZED STEADY-STATES
- STATISTICAL-MECHANICS
- CONDENSATION
- MODEL