Gaseous CO2 behaviour during water displacement in a sandstone core sample

Ebraheam Al-zaidi, Katriona Edlmann, Xianfeng Fan

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


CO2 injection into subsurface formations involves the flow of CO2 through a porous medium that also contains water. The injection, displacement, migration, storage capacity and security of CO2 is controlled mainly by the interfacial interactions and capillary, viscous, and buoyancy forces which are directly influenced by changes in subsurface conditions of pressure and temperature; investigation the impact of bouncy forces is beyond the scope of this study. In this study, gaseous CO2 is injected into a water-saturated sandstone core sample to explore the impact of fluid pressure (40–70 bar), temperature (29–45 °C), and CO2 injection rate (0.1–2 ml/min) on the dynamic pressure evolution and displacement efficiency. This study highlights the impact of capillary or viscous forces on the two-phase flow characteristics and shows the conditions where capillary or viscous forces become more influential. The results reveal a moderate to considerable impact of the parameters investigated on the differential pressure profile, endpoint CO2 relative permeability (KrCO2max), and irreducible water saturation (Swr). Overall, the increase in fluid pressure, temperature, and CO2 injection rate cause an increase in the maximum and final differential pressures, an increase in the KrCO2max, a reduction in the Swr. Swr was in the range of around 0.38–0.45 while KrCO2max was less than 0.25. The data show a significant influence for the capillary forces on the pressure and production behaviour. The capillary forces produce high oscillations in the pressure and production data while the increase in viscous forces impedes the appearance of these oscillations. The appearance and frequency of the oscillations depend on the fluid pressure, temperature, and CO2 injection rate but to different extents.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)32-42
Number of pages11
JournalInternational Journal of Greenhouse Gas Control
Early online date28 Nov 2018
Publication statusPublished - Jan 2019


  • CO2 injection
  • Relative permeability
  • Cyclic oscillations
  • Differential pressure

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