Genetic and phenotypic characterization of a 2006 United States porcine reproductive and respiratory virus isolate associated with high morbidity and mortality in the field

Phillip C Gauger, Kay S Faaberg, Baoqing Guo, Matthew A Kappes, Tanja Opriessnig

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

Abstract

The objective of this study was to characterize a porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) isolated from United States pigs experiencing high morbidity (50%) and mortality (20%). The PRRSV isolate, designated NC16845b, was characterized through phenotypic analysis and genomic sequencing and compared to Type 2 PRRSV isolates VR-2332, MN184 and VR-2385. NC16845b demonstrated slower replication in vitro compared to the three other isolates and grew to a peak titer of 5.4×10(5) plaque forming units (PFU) per ml at 60 h post inoculation, which was 4- to 13-fold less than the peak titer of the other three viruses. NC16845b plaques were intermediate size averaging 3.3mm in diameter that was larger than MN184 plaques and smaller than VR-2385 and VR-2332. Using Northern blot analysis, viral and subgenomic RNA were detected that demonstrated variable levels of hybridization in some open reading frames (ORF) compared to the other viruses. NC16845b is 15,389 nucleotides in length and ORF 5 restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) analysis demonstrated a 1-18-2 pattern. Among all available Type 2 complete genome sequences, NC16845b showed the highest nucleotide homology (91.2%) to atypical PRRSV strain JA142. Compared to prototype VR-2332, NC16845b demonstrated marked nucleotide variability within non-structural protein (nsp) 1β and nsp2, and a nucleotide deletion of 24 bases in nsp2. Sequence homology with VR-2332 and MN184 was 88.4% and 82.9%, respectively; homology with the ORF2-7 of VR-2385 was 90.4%. Collectively, these data indicate that, compared to prototype Type 2 PRRSV isolates, NC16845b exhibited slower in vitro growth properties, had regions of heterogeneity within ORF1a that corresponded to at least two individual virus quasispecies, and also contained a continuous 8 amino acid deletion in the nsp2 protein.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)98-107
Number of pages10
JournalVirus Research
Volume163
Issue number1
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - Jan 2012

Keywords

  • Amino Acid Sequence
  • Animals
  • Base Sequence
  • Blotting, Northern
  • Cluster Analysis
  • Genome, Viral
  • Molecular Sequence Data
  • Nucleic Acid Hybridization
  • Phylogeny
  • Polymorphism, Genetic
  • Polymorphism, Restriction Fragment Length
  • Porcine Reproductive and Respiratory Syndrome
  • Porcine respiratory and reproductive syndrome virus
  • RNA, Viral
  • Sequence Analysis, DNA
  • Sequence Homology, Nucleic Acid
  • Swine
  • United States
  • Viral Load
  • Viral Plaque Assay
  • Virus Replication

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