Genome sequence of the Brown Norway rat yields insights into mammalian evolution

Rat Genome Sequencing Project Consortium, Richard A Gibbs, George M Weinstock, Michael L Metzker, Donna M Muzny, Erica J Sodergren, Steven Scherer, Graham Scott, David Steffen, Kim C Worley, Paula E Burch, Geoffrey Okwuonu, Sandra Hines, Lora Lewis, Christine DeRamo, Oliver Delgado, Shannon Dugan-Rocha, George Miner, Margaret Morgan, Alicia HawesRachel Gill, [No Value] Celera, Robert A Holt, Mark D Adams, Peter G Amanatides, Holly Baden-Tillson, Mary Barnstead, Soo Chin, Cheryl A Evans, Steve Ferriera, Carl Fosler, Anna Glodek, Zhiping Gu, Don Jennings, Cheryl L Kraft, Trixie Nguyen, Cynthia M Pfannkoch, Cynthia Sitter, Granger G Sutton, J Craig Venter, Trevor Woodage, Douglas Smith, Hong-Mei Lee, Erik Gustafson, Patrick Cahill, Arnold Kana, Lynn Doucette-Stamm, Keith Weinstock, Kim Fechtel, Chris P Ponting, Martin S Taylor

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


The laboratory rat (Rattus norvegicus) is an indispensable tool in experimental medicine and drug development, having made inestimable contributions to human health. We report here the genome sequence of the Brown Norway (BN) rat strain. The sequence represents a high-quality 'draft' covering over 90% of the genome. The BN rat sequence is the third complete mammalian genome to be deciphered, and three-way comparisons with the human and mouse genomes resolve details of mammalian evolution. This first comprehensive analysis includes genes and proteins and their relation to human disease, repeated sequences, comparative genome-wide studies of mammalian orthologous chromosomal regions and rearrangement breakpoints, reconstruction of ancestral karyotypes and the events leading to existing species, rates of variation, and lineage-specific and lineage-independent evolutionary events such as expansion of gene families, orthology relations and protein evolution.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)493-521
Number of pages29
Issue number6982
Publication statusPublished - 2004


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