Genomics, environment and balancing selection in behaviorally bimodal populations: the caribou case

Maria Cavedon, Chrysoula Goubili, Elizabeth Heppenheimer, Bridgett vonHoldt, Stefano Mariani, Mark Hebblewhite, Troy Hegel, Dave Hervieux, Robert Serrouya, Robin Steenweg, Byron V Weckworth, Marco Musiani

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

Abstract / Description of output

Selection forces that favor different phenotypes in different environments can change frequencies of genes between populations along environmental clines. Clines are also compatible with balancing forces, such as negative frequency-dependent selection (NFDS), which maintains phenotypic polymorphisms within populations. For example, NFDS is hypothesized to maintain partial migration, a dimorphic behavioral trait prominent in species where only a fraction of the population seasonally migrates. Overall, NFDS is believed to be a common phenomenon in nature, yet, a scarcity of studies were published linking naturally occurring allelic variation with bimodal or multimodal phenotypes and balancing selection. We applied a Pool-seq approach and detected selection on alleles associated with environmental variables along a North-South gradient in western North American caribou, a species displaying partially migratory behavior. On 51 loci, we found a signature of balancing selection, which could be related to NFDS and ultimately the maintenance of the phenotypic polymorphisms known within these populations. Yet, remarkably, we detected directional selection on a locus when our sample was divided in two behaviorally distinctive groups regardless of geographic provenance (a subset of GPS-collared migratory or sedentary individuals), indicating that, within populations, phenotypically homogeneous groups were genetically distinctive. Loci under selection were linked to functional genes involved in oxidative stress response, body development and taste perception. Overall, results indicated genetic differentiation along an environmental gradient of caribou populations, which we found characterized by genes potentially undergoing balancing selection. We suggest that the underlining balancing force, NFDS plays a strong role within populations harboring multiple haplotypes and phenotypes, as it is the norm in animals, plants and humans too. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

Original languageEnglish
JournalMolecular Ecology
Early online date3 Feb 2019
Publication statusE-pub ahead of print - 3 Feb 2019


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