Genotoxicity evaluation of water soil leachates by Ames test, comet assay, and preliminary Tradescantia micronucleus assay

B. Lah, T. Vidic, E. Glasencnik, T. Cepeljnik, G. Gorjanc, Romana Marinsek-Logar*

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

Abstract

Combining genotoxicity/mutagenicity tests and physico-chemical methodologies can be useful for determining the potential genotoxic contaminants in soil samples. The aim of our study was to evaluate the genotoxicity of soil by applying an integrated physico-chemical-biological approach. Soil samples were collected at six sampling points in a Slovenian industrial and agricultural region where contamination by heavy metals and sulphur dioxide (SO2) are primarily caused by a nearby power plant. The in vitro alkaline version of the comet assay on water soil leachates was performed with Caco-2 and HepG2 cells. A parallel genotoxicity evaluation of the samples was performed by Ames test using Salmonella typhimurium and the Tradescantia micronucleus test. Pedological analyses, heavy metal content determination, and different physico-chemical analyses, were also performed utilizing standard methodology. Water leachates of soil samples were prepared according to standard methods. Since only a battery of biotests with prokaryotic and eukaryotic organisms or cells can accurately estimate the effects of (geno)toxicants in soil samples and water soil leachates, a combination of three bioassays, with cells or organisms belonging to different trophic levels, was used. Genotoxicity of all six water soil leachates was proven by the comet assay on both human cell lines, however no positive results were detected by bacterial assay, Ames test. The Tradescantia micronucleus assay showed increase in micronuclei formation for three samples. According to these results we can assume that the comet assay was the most sensitive assay, followed by the micronucleus test. The Ames test does not appear to be sensitive enough for water soil leachates genotoxicity evaluations where heavy metal contamination is anticipated.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)107-118
Number of pages12
JournalEnvironmental Monitoring and Assessment
Volume139
Issue number1-3
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - Apr 2008

Keywords

  • soil
  • in vitro bioassays
  • water soil leachates
  • genotoxicity
  • Ames test
  • comet assay
  • Tradescantia micronucleus test
  • POLYCYCLIC AROMATIC-HYDROCARBONS
  • AMPHIBIAN XENOPUS-LAEVIS
  • DNA-DAMAGE
  • IN-VIVO
  • CONTAMINATED SOILS
  • STRAND BREAKS
  • WASTE-WATER
  • STAMEN HAIR
  • HUMAN-CELLS
  • INDUCTION

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