"God is witness" a classical rhetorical idiom in its pauline usage

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

Abstract / Description of output

Five times in the undisputed letters Paul invokes God as guarantor of the truth of a claim with a form of the phrase "God is witness." Interpreters have long identified these sayings as self-imprecatory oaths after a pattern attested in the Hebrew Bible. In this article, I argue that the Pauline phrase "God is witness" is not a self-imprecatory oath at all, but rather a figure of speech with roots in the rhetoric of classical Greece and a long tradition in postclassical pagan, Jewish, and Christian literature. In this figure of speech, God is not testifying against Paul in case Paul should default on a promise; rather God is testifying for Paul that Paul's character can be trusted.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)355-375
Number of pages21
JournalNovum Testamentum: An International Quarterly for New Testament and Related Studies
Issue number4
Publication statusPublished - 1 Sept 2010

Keywords / Materials (for Non-textual outputs)

  • divine testimony
  • God
  • idiom
  • oath
  • Paul
  • rhetoric
  • witness


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