Good immigrants, permitted outsiders: Conditional inclusion and citizenship in comparison

Andreas Hackl*

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

Abstract / Description of output

As states and national majorities often demand ‘good immigrants’, they designate a narrow space of inclusion that is conditional on fulfilling certain pre-determined criteria of behaviour and identity. Recognition of membership in society is increasingly something that immigrants and their children must deserve through certain efforts, achievements, and actions. This special issue introduction develops a theory of conditional inclusion and good citizenship with a focus on migrant and immigrant-origin minorities in Europe and the Americas. The research in this issue reveals how regimes of conditional inclusion become modes of controlling and rank-ordering minorities. At the same time, it shows how immigrants respond with diverse struggles for inclusion and recognition. These struggles are a hidden battleground of citizenship on which minorities negotiate the parameters that determine who can be included and accepted in a given state or society. Their experience shows that a logic conditionality is inherent to citizenship today.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)989-1010
JournalEthnic and Racial Studies
Issue number6
Early online date11 Mar 2022
Publication statusPublished - 26 Apr 2022

Keywords / Materials (for Non-textual outputs)

  • immigrants
  • migrants
  • minorities
  • good citizens
  • inclusion
  • recognition


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