In plants, the chloroplast is the main reactive oxygen species (ROS) producing site under high light stress. Catalase (CAT), which decomposes hydrogen peroxide (H O ), is one of the controlling enzymes that maintains leaf redox homeostasis. The catalase mutants with reduced leaf catalase activity from different plant species exhibit an H O -induced leaf cell death phenotype. This phenotype was differently affected by light intensity or photoperiod, which may be caused by plant species, leaf redox status or growth conditions. In the rice CAT mutant nitric oxide excess 1 (noe1), higher H O levels induced the generation of nitric oxide (NO) and higher S-nitrosothiol (SNO) levels, suggesting that NO acts as an important endogenous mediator in H O -induced leaf cell death. As a free radical, NO could also react with other intracellular and extracellular targets and form a series of related molecules, collectively called reactive nitrogen species (RNS). Recent studies have revealed that both RNS and ROS are important partners in plant leaf cell death. Here, we summarize the recent progress on H O -induced leaf cell death and the crosstalk of RNS and ROS signals in the plant hypersensitive response (HR), leaf senescence, and other forms of leaf cell death triggered by diverse environmental conditions.