Moderate cure rates of acute hepatitis C virus (HCV) infections with pegylated interferon and ribavirin (PR) have been described in the last decade in men who have sex with men (MSM) who are coinfected with the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). However, a subsequent high incidence of HCV reinfections has been reported regionally in men who both clear the infection spontaneously or who respond to treatment.Retrospective analysis of reinfections in HIV infected MSM in eight centers from Austria, France, Germany, and the UK within the NEAT network between May 2002 and June 2014.Of 606 individuals who cleared HCV spontaneously or were successfully treated, 149 (24.6%) presented with a subsequent HCV reinfection. 30 out of 70 (43%) who cleared again or were successfully treated, presented with a second reinfection, 5 with a third, and one with a fourth reinfection. The reinfection incidence was 7.3/100 person-years (95% CI 6.2-8.6). A trend for lower incidence among individuals who had spontaneous cleared their incident infection than among individuals who were treated was found (Hazard ratio 0.62, 95% CI 0.38-1.02, p=0.06). Spontaneous clearance of reinfection was associated with ALT levels >1000 IU/ml and spontaneous clearance of a prior infection.HCV reinfection is an issue of major concern in HIV-positive MSM. Prevention strategies are needed for high-risk groups to reduce morbidity and treatment costs. HIV-positive MSM with a prior HCV-infection should be tested every 3 to 6 months for reinfection, those who had achieved a reinfection every 3 months.We evaluated the occurrence of HCV reinfection in HIV-positive men who have sex with men who were cured for a previous HCV infection. We found an alarming incidence of 7.3/100 person-years. Prevention measures need to address this specific subgroup of patients at high risk for HCV.
- NEAT study group